We have helped many thousands of women since Adharshila was formed in 2004.
Women Health Centre (General Physician)
Legal/ Lee Awareness Session
Basic Fashion Design
Beauty & Wellness
Advanced Fashion Design
Non Formal Education
Spoken English Program
Self Defense Training
Disaster Management Training
First Aid & Home Nursing
Training of SC/ST
Self Help Groups
General Duty Assistant
Dec 2011 - March 2018
2007 - March 2018
2008 - November 2017
2005 - March 2018
Jan 2005 - March 2018
Jan 2005 - March 2018
Jan 2008 - March 2018
Jan 2005 - June 2016
2005 - August 2015
April 2012 - March 2018
Sept 2013 - March 2018
July 2013 - March 2018
Jan 2010 - March 2018
July 2010 - March 2014
2005 - March 2016
2009 - Dec 2011
2009 - Dec 2011
2009 - October 2014
2010 - March 2012
October 2015 - Sept 2016
8 groups (151 women)
I am 20 years old and my father would not allow me to study beyond grade 12. Ever since I was little, I have wanted to do fashion design but my father and brother prohibited it. I heard about Adharshila and finally had the chance to pursue my dreams but instead, my father wanted me to marry a man who is 10 years older than I am. This man was also demanding a dowry of 70 Lakhs, more than my family could afford. He claimed he was a doctor in his village but my family never verified his credentials. My father was ready to sell their home in order to pay the dowry, but my mother refused and was beaten every day because of her opposition. My mother allowed me to take classes at Adharshila, but I had to lie to my family about the duration of the program so they would allow me to enroll. After 3 months, my family thought the program was over and no longer payed for the fees. Luckily, I started to receive orders and was able to pay for my own course fees and training material with the money I was earning. My unsupportive brother would raise suspicions to my family and taunt me, but my younger sister looked up to me. Despite all of the obstacles I faced, I was able to overcome these hardships and am making enough money to support my younger sister, who is inspired by my perseverance. She ties ‘Rakhi’ on my wrist instead of my brother’s wrist because she is inspired by my determination and knows that I will be the one that supports her in all of her endeavors.
My parents got married when my father was 7 years old and my mother was 4 years old. My mother was terminally ill but despite her illness, she was able to give birth to me and my three siblings. Because my father was a migrant, he worked as a daily wage labourer until he passed away in 2016. He was only earning Rs.750 per month and my mother was not able to work because of her illness. I remember when I was in school, I had dreamed about being a teacher. I loved learning but this was no longer possible when my family did not have enough money to buy me notebooks for school. Even though they only cost Rs.2, this was more than my family could afford. My grades plummeted because I was unable to write down the information I was learning, and my hopes of being a teacher shattered. After I finished high school, I began working at a local NGO and taught a sewing class to 80 students every day. I was making Rs.1000/- month and was the sole supporter of my sick mother and younger brother. While I was working at this NGO, I heard about Adharshila’s fashion design program and decided to enroll. Because of the money I was earning while taking the MasterG course, I was able to enroll a university program and I just passed my second exam for the Bachelor of Arts while doing a full time job at MasterG to support my family. Many people ask me how I was able to do all of this, but I didn’t know anything else. My family had no other option so I took on these challenges and made the most of every opportunity. I am so grateful to Adharshila and the MasterG program for giving me the skills necessary for a good job and a far wage. I am now able to comfortably support my mom and my brother and am very proud that I was able to attend a university.
I spent my childhood seeing my father brutally abuse my mother, physically and mentally. She wanted to leave my dad but was unable to because of my siblings and me, and every day she would come home only to face violent attacks from the man she married. One day, my father broke her leg and from that day on, my mother could no longer return home to the abusive household. After the abandonment from our mother, at the age of eight and six, my little sister and I were left alone to cook and manage the house. Our aunt helped us occasionally, but my father and grandparents refused to help. My father’s family did not allow me to study past 9th grade and did not want me to attend classes at Adharshila. Despite this opposition, I was able to convince them to let me take classes. I borrowed my first fee from my friend, and quickly started learning, working, and earning money to pay my friend back and purchase more materials. Because of this incredible opportunity, I now earn Rs. 10,000 per month and with my savings, I have bought a machine and a gold pair of earrings to give to my aunt because she was the only one that supported me. I am also supporting my little sister so one day she can grow up and be financially independent. I was also able to purchase a smartphone, which is an important item for my business. One day, I want to be a successful fashion designer like Gayatri Madam. Her confidence and skills inspire me, so I one day hope to be like her.
My father was the breadwinner in a family of six so he could not afford to pay for all of our education. After grade 12, I had to stop my schooling and my parents wanted me to marry as soon as possible so they could be free of their responsibilities. I got married at the age of 20 but was not ready to shoulder the responsibility of a big family. In my spare time at home, I would stitch my clothes and so when my sister in law introduced me to Adharshila, I was very happy. As I learned better finishing techniques, my interest in fashion design grew and so did the number of orders I received every week. I started earning Rs.4000 per month but after I finished my course, I worked in a boutique and earned Rs. 8000 per month. I have now trained over 100 girls at home for a small fee, so they can also be financially independent. With the support of Adharshila and MasterG, I have now opened a shop and my husband supports me in this venture.
At the age of 11, I started making clothes for my dolls with leftover fabric from my moms stitching and staples I found around the house. My mother was my inspiration and my dream was always to become a fashion designer. I started looking for institutes that offered these courses, but the cost was too high for my family. I was very discouraged until I received Adharshila’s pamphlet which gave me a new ray of hope. My mother and I walked to the center and we were convinced that this course was going to be beneficial to my success. She supported me for six months and after that, I started earning enough to pay for my own fees. I offered my first earnings to my mother but she told me to save it to fulfill my dreams. After the course finished, my teachers helped me get a job in a boutique for Rs.10,000 per month. Initially my father was worried about the conditions and safety of the workplace but after visiting the shop regularly, he allowed me to work there. Recently I got engaged and I convinced my fiance to allow me to open my own boutique in Allahabad after the wedding.
My mother married at the age of 16 and was mentally and physically abused by her husband. She would repeatedly leave her husband’s house and seek shelter at her parent’s home but they were not keen to support her. One day, she took my siblings and me and left. In order to support us, she worked as a maid and at the hospital cleaning toilets. Later, she got a job in an expatriate’s house where she earned a better wage. Under the influence of our father, one day my brother beat my mother so badly that she made him leave our home permanently. Because of all of the abusive behavior from the male figures in our lives, my mother realized the importance of making me and my sister financially independent. My mother enrolled me in a pattern design institute, but I was not happy with the curriculum, so when I heard about Adharshila, I enrolled with the dream that one day I will open up my own boutique.
A 30 year old woman came to our Harkesh Nagar clinic with a history of recurrent miscarriages. She had been married for 12 years and had a history of 5 previous miscarriages. She had undergone some tests for infertility and they had found to be normal. Dejected, she had stopped all treatment. The Adharshila doctors treated her with a course of antibiotics and pre-conception folic acid. It was a success and she conceived but was very apprehensive about the pregnancy. She came into the clinic for routine check ups and followed advice given to her. We were very anxious when she developed preclampsis at 35 weeks of gestation, though BP remained in control with anti hypertensive medication. Then, the patient developed chicken pox at 38 weeks of gestation, which was dangerous for both the mother and baby. She went into labor 5 days after the onset of lesions and delivered a baby boy. The patient is very thankful to Adharshila and the medical staff at Adharshila centre for supporting her through her pregnancy and giving her advice virtually at her doorstep, and finally bringing a smile to the whole family.
A 13 year old girl was brought by her mother with history of onset four months before. Since then, she had heavy, irregular, and prolonged cycles lasting 10-12 days. On examination, she was a thinly built girl, 150 cm tall weighing just 32kg. She was pale and had a haemic murmur in her heart. She was investigated to rule out any coagulopathies, endocrine or pelvic pathologies. As none were found, she was given medication to improve her general condition and regulate her cycles. She was also given advice on pubertal changes including diet and psychology. She was on hormonal therapy for 6 cycles. Then she was given locally acting medicines during menses for another 3 cycles. This has controlled her menorrhagia. In the past one year, she has become a confident young lady with a positive attitude. Her height and weight have also improved - 156 cm and 38 kg.
A young woman came into the Tigri Healthcare center when she was 18 weeks pregnant and the ultrasound revealed that she was having twins. To prevent any complications the Adharshila doctor put her on protein supplements to promote healthy growth of the babies. However, at 30 weeks the patient developed obstetric chastises, a condition in which the liver function becomes deranged and liver enzyme levels rise to fatal levels. She was immediately advised to take liver protective medicine. Due to the antenatal care provided by Adharshila, her pregnancy continued smoothly thereafter and she delivered two healthy baby girls.
A patient came into our office with complaints of a headache associated with uneasiness for the past 6 months. On examination, the doctors discovered that she had high blood pressure, facial puffiness, pale complexion, and swollen feet and hands. She admitted that her urine output had declined so the doctors conducted a renal pathology kidney function test and a complete blood count was performed. She was found to have a mildly elevated urea and also creatinine, uric acid, and low hemoglobin thereby confirming renal pathology. The USG confirmed shrunken kidneys so she was advised to go to an expert for further opinion. Due to the timely intervention, her diagnosis was made early on, thereby preventing any devastating renal damage. The patient is continuing treatment through Adharshila and is on regular medication for hypertension which is thought to be the cause for her renal problems.
An older female patient came into Adharshila OPD for the first time last year. She told the doctor she has been suffering from joint pains severe fatigue for the last 6 months. After a thorough general and blood examination, the doctors discovered that her conditions were due to Rheumatoid arthritis and anemia. The doctors prescribed her disease modifying anti Rheumatic drugs and iron supplements for her conditions. She is currently pain free and is able to do her daily activities without any difficulty.
A 20 year old first time pregnant woman was brought by her sister-in-law when she was 28 weeks pregnant. The attendant told us that she had developed a mental problem during pregnancy and a government hospital administered her a generic medication. As it was difficult to take her to a hospital OPD and wait for a long time, it was decided that she would be brought to our centre for antenatal care. On examination, the patient was not well oriented and did not understand or respond to instructions. The uterine height corresponded to the period of gestation, and all of her routine examinations were normal. Her pregnancy progressed normally, however, her mental condition did not show much improvement even with medication. The doctor diagnosed her with psychosis, a disorder which can lead to bizarre behavior during pregnancy. This is a dangerous disorder and the doctors monitored her closely to ensure no harm would be done to her or the baby. At full term, she was referred for delivery. She was unable to breast feed but, soon after delivery, her mental condition dramatically improved. She was taken off medication one month after delivery and during her follow up appointments she is happy and cheerful.
An 18 year old female college student came into the clinic and complained of sporadic weight gain, irregular periods, facial hair, and lethargy despite having no change in her daily routine. However, her checkup revealed a deranged lipid profile and increased fat in her blood levels. A USG revealed that she has polycystic ovaries. Adharshila is treating her for PCOD and counsels her regarding diet and exercise. She is responding well to the medication and her situation is improving.
A woman came into our clinic and described problems conceiving. Her and her husband had been trying to conceive for several years and her inability was starting to cause problems in their marriage. She brought her husband in for fertility testing and after a general examination, both of the egg and sperm counts were normal. The doctors were shocked by this unexplained infertility and put the wife on ovulation induction. After two months of this, she conceived and is now in her first trimester of her pregnancy. The early pregnancy scan showed a normally developing intrauterine baby and no further complications are expected with the pregnancy. The husband and wife are very happy and excited to welcome a child into their lives and their marital disagreements have halted.
A middle-aged woman came to us with a history of recurrent miscarriages. She has been married for several years and and wanted a baby. She had three previous miscarriages all occurring around three or four months into her pregnancy. When she came into the centre, she was 6 weeks pregnant and she wanted professional help to make sure the fetus stays healthy. The doctors gave her injectable weekly hormones for four weeks and afterwards she was given oral progesterone and aspirin to keep a steady blood flow to the placenta and uterus. A level 2 scan was completed at 19 weeks which showed a normally developing fetus. After 5 months, she discontinued the hormones and only continued with her other supplements of calcium, ecosporin and iron. She is now in her 7th month and her pregnancy is going smoothly and the doctors do not expect any complications with the delivery.
An HIV+ patient came in and reported that she was pregnant. Because this can be a high risk pregnancy, we wanted to have the husband come in for counseling so he could understand the impact of having babies. However, he was not willing to meet with the doctor but was willing to go to a hospital so the HIV+ patient went to Safdarjung Hospital for further testing. The junior doctors were unprofessional and and refused to register her in the hospital. Distraught, she came back to Adharshila and was taken to the HIV testing center of SJH. There, both she and her husband were tested and turned out to be positive. She was then referred to the Obstetrics Department of SJH by the HIV Centre of SJH. With the help of Adharshila and the constant support, she was able to seek out the medical help she needed.
70 years old woman came into the OPD Harkesh Nagarclinic for the first time and complained about severe shoulder pain on both sides. In addition, she also said she has noticed a reduced appetite, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The doctor noticed that her shoulder movement was restricted and she was also was physically and emotionally distressed with her continuous pain. Due to the severe pain, she was even unable to perform daily tasks without help. After examination, the doctor found that she has very high CRP, ESR, a TSH and low hemoglobin all in favor of connective tissue disorder, and she diagnosed her with polymyalgia rheumatica connective tissue disorder. The patient is now receiving empirical therapy and is already seeing drastic improvements after just one week.
A frequent patient of Adharshila had a history of three miscarriages and a history of irregular cycles, so the doctor put her on hormonal support. When she came in for her next appointment, she said she took a pregnancy test and that it came back positive. An early scan showed no intrauterine pregnancy but her blood test for pregnancy marker came to be positive, but before the titre could rise significantly, her cycles started proving that it was only a biochemical pregnancy. However, she later came back with complains of irregular cycles and an inability to conceive. The Adharshila doctor gave her metformin, and once her cycles regularized she was given ovulation induction. After 2 cycles of ovulation induction, she conceived. Later, an ultrasound showed a normally developing baby. She is now in her 7th month of pregnancy and her pregnancy is continuing smoothly because of the aid she received from Adharshila.
Six months ago a women with uncontrolled diabetes came into the clinic. Her sugars were more than 350 mg/dl, her HbA1C > 9.0, and the kidney function test were also deranged. Because of these numbers, the doctors were very concerned about possible complications. Immediately, the they gave her medication counseling and and regular sugar monitoring, causing her sugar to be well under control. Now, her HbA1C is less than 7.0 and she is at a low risk of serious complications.
A young, married woman came in to the center because she was having recurrent miscarriages. She was ready to have children but could not conceive. She did not have other pain so she was unsure of the issue and came to Adharshila for help. The doctors examined her and was diagnosed with endometrial tuberculosis. The doctors started her on ATT and she saw instant results. She conceived spontaneously after 2 months of starting therapy. She came for regular follow ups and to prevent any further complications she was put on protein and iron supplements and was advised to have an iron rich diet. She went into a preterm labor at 35 weeks of gestation and underwent a caesarean section for a breech presentation. Both mother and baby are healthy and doing well after the care they received at Adharshila Health Center.
A 35 year old woman visited the doctor when she was 11 weeks pregnant with her third child. She came in for a checkup to ensure her pregnancy was going smoothly. She came back in a few weeks later and reported that she had high colored urine and a fever. After further inspection, the doctors discovered that she had jaundice. On investigation, her bilirubin was increased to 10mg/dl and her liver enzymes were also abnormal. The doctors performed a series of blood tests and they found that she had Hepatitis E, a disease that runs a very fulminant course in pregnancy. Hepatitis E can cause many complications such as bleeding, acute liver or kidney failure, and even maternal or fetal death. Because there is no effective treatment, she was given supportive treatment and was advised to rest as much as possible. She came back for a follow up a few weeks after and her conditions were improving rapidly. The Adharshila doctors monitored her until she delivered the baby and ensured that both the baby and the mother were healthy after the pregnancy. She was very lucky to survice hepatitis in pregnancy.
One year ago a woman came into our OPD in August 2010 with a history of pain in her left leg and back. A basic exam did not uncover the issue so she received an MRI that showed a prolapsed intervertebral disc at L3 vertebra with compression over the nerve roots. She wanted to have another child but was worried that she would not be able to because of her back pains. The doctors were skeptical and they gave her strict instructions on ways to relieve the pain so she would be able to carry a baby. The doctors gave her medicine and advised physiotherapy. Because of her progress, she was told that the could go through with the pregnancy as long as she spent more time resting so she would not strain her back. When she conceived, she was given routine antenatal care and symptomatic therapy whenever her symptoms worsened. around 20 weeks in, her placenta was very low and the doctors advised even more rest and a healthy diet. At 28 weeks, the placenta was in the proper place but it caused her pain and tingling in her limbs due to more pressure in that area. Despite all of her complications, the Adharshila doctors were able to ensure a successful delivery and a healthy baby boy. The mother is still experiencing minor pain but it has dramatically decreased in recent months. She is happy to have completed her family and she says that all of the pain turned to sheer joy when she held her baby in her hands.
A 22 year old woman with a history of infertility came into our clinic. For three years she has been unable to conceive. After a preliminary exam she was found to have eosinophilia, which the doctors treated. Following that, she was given two months of ovulation induction. Still, she did not conceive so the doctors switched the medicine and tried a different type. After many efforts, she came back and told us her pregnancy test was positive. Not only had she conceived, but her her level 2 scan showed that she was having twins. Her pregnancy is continuing smoothly and she is now 25 weeks into her pregnancy and cannot wait to meet her twins in a few more weeks.
A woman came into our clinic with a history of 2 previous fetal deaths. One of her babies tragically died one day after she was born due to congenital abnormality of both kidneys and the other one died at 28 weeks in utero due to sudden bleeding from the placenta. When the woman spoke to our doctor, she complained of delayed cycles and an inability to conceive for a year. An ultrasound showed bilateral Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that affects a woman’s hormone levels. She was treated for two months and came back two months later with a positive pregnancy test. Because of her bad obstetric history, she she was put on hormonal supplements and aspirin and advised bed rest. Two months later, she reported vaginal bleeding. After some examination, the doctors discovered that it was due to a low lying placenta, a condition that is very common in their patients. After this scare, she was advised complete bed rest and was administered injectable hormones. Slowly, her placenta rose and she was able to deliver a healthy baby girl by caesarean section.
A young female came into the Adharshila clinic two years ago complaining of severe headaches. The doctors discovered that she had high blood pressure but they were unsure of what was causing this at such a young age. Her blood examination showed increased blood urea and creatinine which are markers of kidney complications and the ultrasound showed contracted kidneys. She was referred to higher centre for specialist opinion but came back to Adharshila for treatment. Following the specialist's advice, she has been on regular treatment for her blood pressure and anemia from Adharshila for the past 2 years and she is able to continue her daily activities pain free and has a good quality of life. This illness was once a debilitating factor in her life but has become something that is easy to live with due to the aid from Adharshila.
A 46 year old diabetic woman has been a patient of Adharshila for the past two years. Before she came into our clinic, she was getting treatment from a local hospital but after her husband's demise, she was no longer able to afford treatment. Once her condition worsened to the point of no control, she came into our clinic for help. Along with diabetic medicine, she was given diet counseling, regular sugar monitoring, and weight control. Now after two years, she has finally achieved her optimal sugar control which will further decrease complications with she could have developed due to her diabetes. With support from Adharshila, this patient can lead a heathy and normal life despite being diabetic.
When I was young, I used to stay very reserved. I didn’t talk much and when I did, I would stammer. Due to my stammering, many schools refused to give me admission. I was actually 7 years old when I got admission in the standard. When I finally joined the school, the kids would make fun of me because of my stammering and I got very disturbed. I was hoping that the teachers would support me and tell the students to stop making fun of me but just like everyone else, they laughed at me when I spoke. Even during class the teachers used to question me, just for their entertainment. But finally, due to God’s grace, my stammering stopped. After this my confidence inclined; I started writing poems and articles, which got published in various magazines and I was awarded with the “Best Writer Award” in a campus writing competition.
After school I was working as a social worker and I became very popular amongst the youth because of my command over my words and my motivational speeches. I am so much influenced by it that I always dream to open my own NGO to work in the interests of people and I will name it “Sab ki Khushi”.
Ten months ago I came to Delhi to further my studies. I heard about Adharshila and joined their computer program. Since joining, I have gained more knowledge about data entry, managing softwares and other technical computer skills. This knowledge has made me more confident and has led me to wonderful opportunities that will continue to further my career and help me accomplish my dreams.
He also wrote this poem for Adharshila that we would like to share:
From a very young age, my father worked as a plumber. Due to a lack of money, one of his siblings had to sleep without food everyday. Because of these struggles he experienced as a kid, when he got married, he would beat my mother. I did not understand what was going on when I was younger, but now I realize how abusive he was to her.
When I was in 3rd standard I got very sick and my parents used all of their savings and had to borrow money from my grandparents for my treatment. My mother had to start working and my sister had to stop her studies to take care of me.
I cleared my 6th grade exams without much effort but after that it was very hard to do well in school and recover from the illness. Despite the challenge, I finished my schooling and a friend of mine introduced me to Adharshila where I joined the basic computer course. My instructors were very accommodating and supportive of me and helped me get a job at “Mass Callnet pvt ltd.” I had such a great experience with the first course that I recently stopped working and enrolled in the advanced computer course so I can get an even higher paying job.
My father came from a large family and he was the eldest son. His family experienced a severe family crisis and they had no source of income. My father worked in a farm but was not earning enough money so he started working in a grocery shop near a railway station. When he moved to Manesar he only had Rs. 2800 and had to pay Rs, 1300 for rent. Since he had the knowledge of Pundit, he started conducting puja in companies and managed to earn Rs. 4300/- per month.
As I was growing up, I was admitted to a government school where I scored almost 100% every year. However, when I was in 9th standard, I started spending time with the wrong people and my school performance decreased. My mother noticed this and she worked with me and my teachers and they helped me get rid of that negativity so I could focus on my academics. Some of my teachers discouraged me because a few of my scores were not as high as they should be, but I got the opportunity to take part in the Pulse Polio mission and earned Rs. 10,000 Rs/-. The department noticed my hard work and named me “BEST PERFORMER OF THE YEAR” and promoted me to team leader of 10 teams in Delhi/NCR.
After that finished I was unsure of what to do, but when I heard about Adharshila’s computer courses I decided to enroll since almost all jobs require computer knowledge. After completing the first course, I immediately found a job at a cafe and look forward to continuing my career.
When I was younger, I did not want to study. I attended a private school and because my teachers gave me personal attention, I did not have to try that hard. My older sister was very supportive of me, but sometimes asked my father why he was spending so much money to send me to school when I did not put in much effort. Even though she did not understand my father’s decision to spend money on me, she still worked in a nearby company to help keep the family financially stable.
A little while later, my family went through a financial crisis when my father gave my uncle Rs 50,000 to make a new tube well in their fields. My father lied to my mother told her that he was going to buy property in a nearby village. My mother eventually found out and when my uncle did not name the tube after my father but named it after himself instead, my family realized that my uncle was not to be trusted.
I have now passed my 12th grade exams and dream to be a fashion designer. I realized that to be successful, I would have to know how to use various computer systems. I joined the basic computer course and have learned many important tools. I will then take the fashion design course and finally be able to achieve my dreams.
My family came to Delhi five years ago. My two eldest brothers came here in search of a job and they never returned back to our village. After a few years, my mother and youngest brother also permanently moved to Delhi. For a while, everything was going smooth but then one of my brothers fell into the wrong habits and started abusing alcohol. He moved away and it completely destroyed my family. Since my father was not in our lives, my two brothers struggled to provide for our family without the help from my other brother. About a year later, my youngest brother was diagnosed with blood cancer and my family did not have enough money to pay for the proper care. My family was in a financial crisis and I wanted to help in any way that I could. I heard about Adharshila and joined the computer basics course. After finishing, I immediately received a job working at “Crossroad pvt ltd.” My brother recently passed away and my family is very upset. I then joined the advanced computers course at Adharshila because I know my brother would want me to provide for my family. I am now able to support my mother and it is all because of the opportunities at Adharshila.
My parents had an inter-caste marriage and everyone was opposed to it. It was so bad that my mother had to live at church for two months because my father’s family wanted to kill her. My father would beat my mother under the influence of his family and they hid all of the the healthy food so she would not have a proper diet during her pregnancy. On the occasion of my brother’s birth, there was a celebration but my grandmother stole all of my mother’s gifts and money for herself.
Since I am a girl, there was no happiness or celebration when I was born. My aunt would steal my nice jewelry and blame my mother for it, but my mother would never get upset because it was the sacrifice she made for her family. My older brother got very ill and he told me that he wanted me to become independent and successful. He knew I had always dreamed of becoming a fashion designer and he told me to follow my dreams. Because of him, I enrolled in Adharshila’s basic computer course and have the knowledge necessary to design on my own.